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Stephan M. Haggard

Lawrence and Sallye Krause Professor of Korea-Pacific Studies; Director, Korea-Pacific Program (KPP)


(858) 534-5781
Fax: (858) 534-3939

9500 Gilman Drive
La Jolla, CA 92093-0519

Office: #1425


Ph.D. (1983), M.A. (1977) and B.A. (1976), UC Berkeley (political science)

Programs and Centers

Korea-Pacific Program
Korea Regional Concentration Program



Stephan Haggard is the Lawrence and Sallye Krause Professor of Korea-Pacific Studies; Director, Korea-Pacific Program (KPP); and Distinguished Professor of Political Science at IR/PS. He works on the political economy of developing countries, with a particular interest in Asia and the Korean peninsula. He is the author of Pathways from the Periphery: The Politics of Growth in the Newly Industrializing Countries (1990), The Political Economy of Democratic Transitions (1995, with Robert Kaufman), The Political Economy of the Asian Financial Crisis (2000) and Development, Democracy and Welfare States: Latin America, East Asia, Eastern Europe (2000, with Robert Kaufman). His current research focuses on the relationship between inequality, democratization and authoritarianism in developing countries. 

Professor Haggard has written extensively on the political economy of North Korea with Marcus Noland, including Famine in North Korea: Markets, Aid, and Reform (2007) and Witness to Transformation: Refugee Insights into North Korea (2011). Haggard and Noland co-author the "North Korea: Witness to Transformation" blog at the Peterson Institute for International Economics.

Professor Haggard is the editor of the Journal of East Asian Studies and a member of the Council on Foreign Relations.


Haggard can provide commentary on current developments in the Asia-Pacific, including particularly the Korean peninsula, and on the politics of economic reform and globalization.


Haggard's research interests center on international relations and political economy, with a focus on East Asia and Latin America.

Background Notes

Prior to joining IR/PS in 1992, he was an associate professor in the department of government at Harvard University. Haggard was named director of the Korea-Pacific Program in 1999. He earlier served as director of the University of California's system-wide Institute on Global Conflict and Cooperation (IGCC), based at UC San Diego.

Professional Activities

Member, Council on Foreign Relations.
Elected member, Faculty Council, Harvard University, 1986-1989.
Director of Student Programs and member of the Executive Board, Center for International Affairs, Harvard, 1984-1989.
Chairman, SSRC Working Group on East Asian Regional Research, 1992-95.
Program chair, International Political Economy Section, American Political Science Association Convention, 1989.
Member, SSRC Joint Committee on Korean Studies, 1988-1993; Editorial Board, World Politics, 1990-1996.
Program co-chair, International Studies Association Convention, 1996.
Editorial Board, Ethics and International Affairs, 1988-1998.
External Examiner, National University of Singapore, 1994-1998.
Editorial Board, International Studies Quarterly, 1994-1999.
Associate Editor, Pacific Focus, 1987-present.
Editorial Board, International Trade Journal, 1987-present.
Editorial Board, International Organization, 1993-1999; 2000-present; member, Executive Committee, 1995-1999; book review editor, 1996-present.
Editorial Board, International Relations of the Asia-Pacific, 2000-present.
Editorial Board, Korean Journal of Policy Studies, 2000-present.
Advisory Board, Journal of Asian Business, 1994-present.

Publications of Note

Haggard has written on East Asia's economic growth, the Latin American and East Asian financial crises, democratization and federalism. His books include Pathways from the Periphery: The Politics of Growth in the Newly Industrializing Countries (1990), The Political Economy of Democratic Transitions (1995, with Robert Kaufman), Developing Nations and the Politics of Global Integration (1995), and most recently, The Political Economy of the Asian Financial Crisis (2000) and From Silicon Valley to Singapore: Location and Competitive Advantage in the Hard Disk Drive Industry (2000).

Recent Publications

Witness to Transformation: Refugee Insights into North Korea - Stephan Haggard and Marcus Noland (PIIE). Peterson Institute for International Economics (2011)

Famine in North Korea: Markets, Aid, and Reform - Stephan Haggard and Marcus Noland. Columbia University Press (2007).

Recent Papers

Integration in the Absence of Institutions: China–North Korea Cross-Border Exchange

Abstract: Theory tells us that weak rule of law and institutions deter cross-border integration, deter investment relative to trade, and inhibit trade finance. Drawing on a survey of more than 300 Chinese enterprises that are doing or have done business in North Korea, we consider how informal institutions have addressed these problems in a setting in which rule of law and institutions are particularly weak. Given the apparent reliance on hedging strategies, the rapid growth in exchange witnessed in recent years may prove self-limiting, as the effectiveness of informal institutions erode and the risk premium rises. Institutional improvement could have significant welfare implications, affecting the volume, composition, and financial terms of cross-border exchange.

On Benchmarks

Abstract: Since the invasion of Iraq in 2003, the United States has sought to encourage institutional developments in Iraq that would contribute to national reconciliation and mitigate sectarian and insurgent violence. In these reform efforts, including recent "benchmarks," the Bush administration has drawn on power-sharing and federalist models. The purpose of these efforts is to overcome the political dilemmas associated with the relative shift in power among the Sunni, Shia and Kurdish communities, and to blunt the majoritarian features of the political system in particular. A review of the theoretical and empirical literature suggests that the record of these institutional reforms in mitigating violence and ending civil wars is not encouraging. A detailed history of institutional reform efforts in Iraq shows that proposed institutional reforms have not constituted an endogenous political equilibrium, have not been credible, or have had perverse consequences. These findings suggest the limits on institutional reform and the importance of alternative means of restraining violence.

North Korea’s External Economic Relations

Abstract: North Korea’s international transactions have grown since the 1990s famine period. Illicit transactions appear to account for a declining share of trade. Direct investment is rising, but the county remains significantly dependent on aid to finance imports. Interdependence with South Korea and China is rising, but the nature of integration with these two partners is very different: China’s interaction with North Korea appears to be increasingly on market-oriented terms, while South Korea’s involvement has a growing noncommercial or aid component. These patterns have implications for North Korea’s development, the effectiveness of UN sanctions, and its bargaining behavior in nuclear negotiations.